Spiders of the Udmurt Republic, Russia 2021

Latest version published by Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology (IPAE) on 23 June 2022 Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology (IPAE)
Publication date:
23 June 2022
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The dataset is based on the results of a long-term project, `Spiders of the Udmurt Republic` (2007–2018), with some additional data. Samples come from 53 geographical points providing about 10 500 records in the dataset with more than 35 000 specimens recorded. The dataset can help to explore regional fauna, regional and general species distribution, their monitoring, conservation, phenology, and relations with biotic and abiotic conditions.

Data Records

The data in this occurrence resource has been published as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A), which is a standardized format for sharing biodiversity data as a set of one or more data tables. The core data table contains 10,429 records.

This IPT archives the data and thus serves as the data repository. The data and resource metadata are available for download in the downloads section. The versions table lists other versions of the resource that have been made publicly available and allows tracking changes made to the resource over time.


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How to cite

Researchers should cite this work as follows:

Sozontov A (2022): Spiders of the Udmurt Republic, Russia 2021. v1.8. Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology (IPAE). Dataset/Occurrence. N-Eurasia-Russia2021


Researchers should respect the following rights statement:

The publisher and rights holder of this work is Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology (IPAE). This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY 4.0) License.

GBIF Registration

This resource has been registered with GBIF, and assigned the following GBIF UUID: 01f33154-d6f7-4079-a9e2-f0a9ca8e8630.  Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology (IPAE) publishes this resource, and is itself registered in GBIF as a data publisher endorsed by Participant Node Managers Committee.


abundance; Araneae; diversity; life stage; occurrence; samplingevent; sex; southern taiga; spiders; Udmurt Republic; Udmurtia; Specimen


Artëm Sozontov
  • Metadata Provider
  • Originator
  • Point Of Contact
Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology (IPAE UB RAS)
8 Marta, 202
620144 Ekaterinburg
Artem Sozontov

Geographic Coverage

All collecting points are limited by administrative borders of the Udmurt Republic, one of the federal subjects of the Russian Federation. Being 42 000 km^2 of area, it extends 300 km in North-South direction and 200 km in West-East one. The studied region belongs to the East of the Russian plain, borders with the western piedmont of the Ural Mountains, and is situated in the interstream area of the Vyatka and Kama rivers [Illarionov, 2009]. Relief of the republic can be defined as a hilly plain. Regional altitudes lay within 52 and 333 m above sea level [Podsosova, 1972]; collecting points lay between 61 and 254 meters. The territory belongs to southern taiga (1/3) and mixed forests (2/3) subzones. The Southernmost area is under the intense influence of the forest-steppe, which reflects on spider fauna notably [Shadrin, 1999; Baranova et al., 2010].

Bounding Coordinates South West [55.857, 51.129], North East [58.557, 54.471]

Taxonomic Coverage

The array of data is devoted to spiders (order Araneae) entirely and includes 403 exact spider species of 181 genus and 26 families. Additionally, there are three specimens of Archaeodictyna (Dictynidae), Decipiphantes (Linyphiidae), and Theridiosoma (Theridiosomatidae) genus with unclear species status and required further taxonomic investigations. Stored or only registered specimens have the age-sex distribution: males (40 %), females (28 %), subadult spiders (11 %), juveniles (21 %).

Order Araneae Clerck, 1757 (Araneae)

Temporal Coverage

Start Date / End Date 2007-06-21 / 2018-08-02

Project Data

L.K. Krulikovskiy [1892, 1908, 1915] provided the first data about spiders of Udmurt Republic territory. Long after, V.P. Tyshchenko noted ten spider species occurring in the Udmurt Republic in his famous book [Tyshchenko, 1971]. T.L. Zubko carried out the first purposeful faunistic research of the spiders of the republic between 1978 and 1981 [Zubko, Roshchinenko, 1981]. She recorded 72 spider species, published an article (link), but her collection is currently lost. In 2007, I started second-stage research of Udmurtia spiders focused on their fauna, diversity, biogeography, ecology, and community structure. The study went on in close cooperation with prof. S.L. Esyunin (Perm State University) and prof. S.V. Dedyukhin (Udmurt State University). The first published article [Sozontov, Esyunin, 2012] boosted known spider species 2.5 times (Table). In 2013, I reviewed the entire research history to summarize all published data and outline prospects of future investigations [Sozontov, 2013]. After that, a few articles about fauna, biogeography, and taxonomy were published [Adakhovskiy et al., 2012; Sozontov, 2015; Sozontov, Esyunin, 2015; Esyunin, Sozontov, 2015]. Finally, Ph.D. thesis "Fauna and ecology of spiders (Aranei) of the Udmurt Republic: diversity, habitat distribution, community structure," concerning spider fauna structure and genesis, spider communities diversity and structure and their spatiotemporal variation, contains an integrated analysis of all the data [Sozontov, 2018]. The research project was done according to the principles and method of ecological-faunistic investigations [Dedyukhin, 2011]. The main idea of this approach to field studies is a combination of comprehensive collecting within reference local faunas [Chernov, 1989; Chernov, Penev, 1993; Penev, 1996] and route census collecting. This balance enables comparing quantitative data from local faunas and getting a dense cloud of occasional collecting points (45 ones). The second aspect is undoubtedly helpful for explore the regional distribution of species and maximizing the proportion of discovered fauna. Well-known local faunas for the project are "Siva" permanent field study station (912 samples and 2888 specimens), Ust»-Belsk (581 and 1791), Golushurma (457 and 1952), Sokolovka (544 and 7492), «Sirius» SNT (826 and 3047), «Skipidarka» Urochishche (203 and 877), Chutyr (828 and 2447), Hohryaki (123 and 773) (marked as red stars on the map, Fig. 1). Apart from the above said, the ecological-faunistic approach assumes sampling by a set of methods within all vegetation story ranges.

Title Spiders of the Udmurt Republic, Russia

The personnel involved in the project:

Sampling Methods

Field studies were carried out using commonly accepted methods: lines of pitfall traps, entomological net, litter sifting, and manual collecting [Tyshchenko, 1971; Woodcock, 2005; Oliger, 2010]. Plastic cups with 7 cm diameter served as pitfall traps and 4% acetic acid with a pellet of surface-active substance as killing and preserving agents. Traps lines included 5 to 15 ones, with a spacing of 3 m. Aside from own materials, the dataset involves purposeful collections of S.V. Shirobokova, K.S. Tatarkin, E.S. Shirobokova, A.V. Uskova, and S.V. Dedyukhin, and specimens occasionally collected by other colleagues, listed as legit collectors in the "recordedBy" DarwinCore column.

Study Extent The dataset includes spider (order Araneae) species occurrences within administrative borders of the Udmurt Republic. The studied region is placed on the East of the Russian Plain, near Middle Urals, and belongs to the southern taiga and mixed forests subzones. The collection contains material picked up during 12 years, from 2007 to 2018. The collection had been carried out for 12 years: from 2007 to 2018. Typical seasonal coverage is from May to September, with a few exceptions. The total ratio of years and months is provided bellow. Years, %: 2007 - 1, 2008 - 1, 2009 - 2, 2010 - 1, 2011 - 9, 2012 - 11, 2013 - 9, 2014 - 7, 2015 - 4, 2016 - 19, 2017 - 27, 2018 - 9. Months, %: May - 6, June - 52, July - 25, August - 14, September - 2, October to April - 1. There are a total of 53 observed sampling places, collapsing to 21 types of biotopes: Floodplain oak forests, Riverain deciduous forest strips, Watershed lime-forests, Pine forests, Spruce-fir forests, Dark coniferous forests with lime, Floodplain steppificated meadows, Bottomland meadows, Upland meadows, Sloping steppificated meadows, Edges of deciduous forests, Edges of mixed forests, Edges of pine-forests, Open raised bogs, Forested raised bogs, Open lake/pond shores, Open river banks, Alder grove, Heated dwellings, Unheated premises, Agrocoenosis.
Quality Control All collected spider specimens are wet-preserved in 70% alcohol. Stored material is shared between the Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology (IPAE UB RAS, Ekaterinburg, prevailing part), Perm State University (Perm), Udmurt State University (Izhevsk), Zoological Museum of the Moscow State University (Moscow). The majority of the material has identification to species level (71 %), another part – to genus level (29 %, primarily juveniles). Species identification was performed mainly by the author; about 10% of specimens were cross-checked or identified by prof. S.L. Esyunin (Perm). Taxonomy nomenclature complies with the World Spider Catalog (WSC, 2021).

Method step description:

  1. The dataset is not a part of any repeated projects.

Bibliographic Citations

  1. Adakhovskiy D.A., Dedyukhin S.V., Sozontov A.N. 2012. [Invertebrates] // Red data book of the Udmurt Republic. 2nd ed. Cheboksary: Perfectum Publ. P. 16–92 [in Russian].
  2. Baranova O.G., Egorov I.E., Sturman V.I. 2010. On the south limit of taiga in the western part of pre-Urals // Vestnik Udmurtskogo universiteta. Seiya "Biologia. Nauki o Zemle". № 1. P. 58–59 [in Russian with English summary].
  3. Chernov Yu.I. 1989. Thermal conditions and Arctic biota // The Soviet Journal of Ecology. Vol. 20. № 2. P. 102–108.
  4. Chernov Yu.I., Penev L.D. 1993. [Biodiversity and climate] // Uspekhi sovremennoy biologii. Vol. 113. № 5. P. 515–531 [in Russian].
  5. Dedyukhin S.V. 2011. [The principles and method of ecological-faunistic investigations]. Izhevsk: Udmurtskiy Universitet Publ. 93 pp [in Russian].
  6. Esyunin S.L., Sozontov A.N. 2015. Spiders of the genus Pisaura Simon, 1885 (Aranei, Pisauridae) in Middle Volga and Cisurals territories, with notes on the distribution of P. novicia (L. Koch, 1878) // Euroasian entomological journal. Vol. 14. № 4. P. 325–333 [in Russian with English summary].
  7. Illarionov A.G. 2009. [Relief. The main features of orography] // Geografiya Umurtii: prirodnye usloviya i resursy: uchebnoye posobie. Izhevsk: Udmurt State Univ. Publ. P. 20–39 [in Russian].
  8. Krulikovskiy L.K. 1892. [On the appearing of the Russian tarentula, Lycosa latreillei in the Vyatka Government] // Trudy Russk. entomol. Obschestva. Vol. 26. P. 7–9 [in Russian].
  9. Krulikovskiy L.K. 1908. [A short sketch of the fauna of the Vyatka Government] // Pamayatnaya knizhka Vyatskoi Gubernii i calendar na 1909 g. Vyatka: Gub. stat. com. P. 36–69 [in Russian].
  10. Krulikovskiy L.K. 1915. [Little zoological notes] // Zapiski uralskogo obshchestva lyubitelei estestvoznaniya. Vol. 35. № 1–3. P. 5–8 [in Russian].
  11. Oliger T.I. 2010. [Spiders of south-eastern Ladoga Region]. Sankt-Petersburg: Sankt-Petersburg University Press. 340 p. [in Russian].
  12. Penev L.D. 1996. Large-scale variation in carabid assemblages, with special reference to the local fauna concept // Annales Zoologici Fennici. Vol. 33. P. 49–63.
  13. Podsosova T.K. 1972. [Relief] // Priroda Umdurtii. Izhevsk: Udmurt State Univ. Publ.P. 37–64 [in Russian].
  14. Shadrin V.A. 1999. [Enrichment of the flora of Udmurtia: migration, localization, prerequisites and conditions] // Vestnik Udmurtskogo universiteta. Seiya "Biologia". Vol. 5. № 2. P. 13–33 [in Russian].
  15. Sozontov A.N. 2013. Spiders (Arachnida, Aranei) of Udmurt Republic: history and prospect of studies // Vestnik Udmurtskogo universiteta. Seriya "Biologia. Nauki o Zemle". № 3. P. 51–57 [in Russian with English summary].
  16. Sozontov A.N. 2015b. On the distribution specificity of some European spider species near the eastern limits of its ranges // Nauka Udmurtii. № 3 (73). P. 185–191 [in Russian with English summary].
  17. Sozontov A.N. 2018a. [Fauna and ecology of spiders of the Udmurt Republic: diversity, distribution, communities» structure]. PhD thesis. 249 pp. [in Russian].
  18. Sozontov A.N., Esyunin S.L. 2012. On the spider fauna (Arachnida: Aranei) of Udmurt Republic // Arthropoda Selecta. Vol. 21. № 1. P. 85–95.
  19. Sozontov A.N., Esyunin S.L. Taxonomical remarks about two spider species from the genus Tetragnatha Latreille 1804 (Aranei, Tetragnathidae) // Entomological Review. 2015. Vol. 95. № 3. P. 406–414.
  20. Tyshchenko V.P. 1971. [Identification key to spiders of the European part of the USSR]. Leningrad: Nauka. 281 pp. [in Russian].
  21. Woodcock B.A. 2005. Pitfall trapping in ecological studies // Insect Sampling in Forest Ecosystems. Hoboken, NJ: Blackwell Publ. P. 37–57.
  22. Zubko T.L., Roshchinenko V.I. 1981. [To the spider fauna of some regions of Udmurtian ASSR] // Fauna i ekologiya zhivotnykh Udmurtskoy ASSR I prilezhashchikh reionov. Izhevsk: Udmurt State Univ. Press. P. 48–57 [in Russian].

Additional Metadata

Alternative Identifiers 01f33154-d6f7-4079-a9e2-f0a9ca8e8630